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Lan Protocols

LAN (Local Area Network) can use several Network Protocols to define the Network. These protocols are defined at the OSI Data Link Layer

Protocol Cable used Topology Media Access Advantages Disadvantages
Ethernet Twisted Pair or Fiber Optic Star CSMA/CD Fast; Easy setup and maintenance Possible Collision issues
Token Ring Twisted Pair Ring Token Passing Low error rate Slow (4 or 16 Mbps)
FDDI Fiber Optic (Dual counter rotating ring) Ring Token Passing Low error rate. Redundancy.  Expensive
ARCNet Coaxial Star Token Passing Predicable Network Performance Slow. (Almost extinct)

Two additional Data Link Layer protocols

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol):

Coverts IP address to MAC Address. An ARP cache is maintained in the system that has a table mapping of IP address to MAC address in the Network.

RARP (Revers Address Resolution Protocol):

Convers MAC address to IP Address

Classifications of LAN transmissions:

Unicast: Data is transmitted from source to a destination system

Multicast: Data is transmitted from source to multiple destinations using a special multicast IP address

Broadcast: Data is transmitted from source to the every device on the Network by using broadcast IP address

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